ABC of Evolution: Part one

Mazhar Abbas Khan


Adaptation is a characteristic of an organism that helps it adapt to its environment. A particular adaptation allows an organism to better survive its specific environment and increase its chances of propagating its own species.

For example, the adaptation of each animal’s body color to the color of its environment is an adaptation. The color of the white fox seen in the picture is similar to the color of the surrounding snow. Because of this, the fox can escape from the eyes of its predator.

If a brown-skinned fox is left in the area, it will not be able to survive. The hunter/predator will easily recognize it.
Organisms acquire such properties through natural selection Biodiversity:The diversity of life is called biodiversity. That is, the different forms of plants, animals, microorganisms that are found in an area or all over the world. It is the biodiversity of the region or the world.

Studying different kinds of living things shows that some of them are very similar and some are very different. Lions, tigers and leopards are very similar to each other but lions and crocodiles look very different from each other.Similarly, the rest of mankind has a striking resemblance to a champanzee, while humans and chimpanzees are very different from starfish and octopuses.

From an evolutionary point of view, living things evolve from common ancestors like the branches of a tree. Like branches sprout from a tree and more branches sprout from these branches.
In the same way, from one species to another, and from these new organisms, new species of animals are formed. Animals with more similarities have their ancestors in common in the recent past. And the ancestors of the most diverse creatures are common in the distant past.

Charles Darwin:
A scientist whose name makes certain people turn red and yellow with rage as soon as they see or hear it.
Charles Darwin presented the Theory of Evolution.

It was a great achievement, but the current theory of evolution goes far beyond Darwin’s time. There is evidence that Darwin would not have thought of, and Darwin didn’t know everything about biology anywayCharles Darwin did not know the principles of genetics. Charles Darwin knew nothing about DNA, nor was Darwin a mathematician, mathematics have also contributed to the current theory of evolution that’s why mentioned mathematician. And the principles of genetics also work on mathematical logic.
If you know Mendel’s laws and Hardy Weinberg’s law, you will know why mathematics is talked about, and Hardy Weinberg was a mathematician.

DNA, Evolution and Gene:

We have seen parents we know, often when we see their children we directly come to know that they are the daughter or son of such and such. The nucleus of our body cells contains a genetic material called deoxyribonucleic acid, DNA. It is called genetic material because it transmits the traits of parents to their children.DNA is a very large macromolecule. It is made up of more small molecules, nucleotides. In the nucleus of a cell, DNA combines with proteins to form chromosomes. That is, chromosomes are a combination of DNA and proteins.

Parents’ DNA is passed on to their offspring through chromosomes. In our case, when it comes to evolution, people who are ignorant of biology often go straight to the subject of humans and apes. They think that the Theory of Evolution is nothing more than humans and apes. The fact is that humans and apes are a very small part of theory and evolution. Before discussing any aspect of evolution, it is important to define evolution.
“Evolution is the changing of some of the various monkeys that exist today into humans” If you have been told this definition of evolution, then the narrator has unknowingly misled you and lied to you. And the exact definition of evolution is, “The change in the number of alleles in a population over time is called evolution.”

What are alleles and genes:

The characteristics of an organism are determined by the DNA in its cells, the gene is called a specific part of the DNA.
For example, the parts of DNA that control the color of human eyes, they are the genes that define eye color. The part of a bacterium’s DNA that helps it survive the effects of a specific antibiotic is a gene.

Some features of an organism are controlled by a single gene and some features are controlled by more than one gene, Like in humans, more than one gene plays a role in defining eye color.
Of the 46 chromosomes in the human body, 23 are from mother and 23 from father. This means that if there is a gene that controls a trait on a chromosome inherited from the mother, then a gene that controls that trait will also be present on a chromosome inherited from the father.
These two genes can be exactly the same or different, These same or different strains of genes are called alleles. In the above definition of evolution, it was discussing about these numbers more or less.

These variations in genes are caused by mutations. A mutation is a change in DNANaturally this is a random process. It is unknown that in DNA when and where changes will occure, And it is these mutations that cause diversity in the characteristics of living things. Some have white skinning genes in foxes and some have brown ones. Some people have the genes that make their eyes blue, while others have genes that make their eyes gray.

Mazhar Abbas Khan From Layyah, Graduated from Government College Mailsi, you can reach him through